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Understanding Commands

In this chapter, we'll take a look at the various different types of shell commands that exist and how this can affect your work. Commands are far more subtle than you might think and in this chapter we'll look at some of the nuances of commands and the practical consequences for your work.

By the end of this chapter, you might even be able to make sense of the horrifying and perfectly syntactically valid code below:

which $(where $(what $(whence $(whereis who))))

What Are Commands?​

This is really important to understand! A command in a shell is something you execute. It might take parameters. Generally it'll have a form like this:

command param1 param2

We've already seen many commands during this series:

ls              # Show the contents of the current directory
cd ~ # Move to the user's home
cat file.txt # Output the contents of 'file.txt' to stdout

But to be an effective shell user, you must understand that not all commands are created equal. The differences between the types of commands will affect how you use them.

The Different Types of Commands​

There are four types of commands in most shells:

  1. Executables
  2. "Built-Ins" (which we'll just call builtins from now on)
  3. Functions
  4. Aliases

Each is different and has its own quirks. Let's quickly dig in and see a bit more.

Executables - Programs​

Executables are just files with the 'executable' bit set1. If I execute the cat command, the shell will search for an executable named cat in my $PATH. If it finds it, it will run the program.

$ cat file.txt
This is a simple text file

What is $PATH? $PATH is the standard environment variable used to define where the shell should search for programs. If we temporarily empty this variable, the shell won't find the command:

$ PATH="" cat file.txt
bash: cat: No such file or directory

Normally your $PATH variable will include the standard locations for Linux programs - folders such as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin and so on2.

If you were to print the variable, you'd see a bunch of paths (they are separated by colons; I've put them on separate lines for readability):


The shell will start with the earlier locations and move to the later ones. This allows local flavours of tools to be installed for users, which will take precedence over general versions of tools.

There will likely be other locations too - you might see Java folders, package manager folders and so on.

Executables - Scripts​

Imagine we create a text file called dog in the local folder that looks like this:

echo "🐢 woof 🐢"

This is a shell script (you've heard this before, but we'll see a lot more of these as we go through the book!). We mentioned that executables are any files which have the executable bit set. Let's actually do this, using the chmod (change file modes) command:

$ ls -l dog
-rw-r--r-- 1 dwmkerr staff 32 Oct 8 22:44 dog
$ chmod +x dog
$ ls -l dog
-rwxr-xr-x 1 dwmkerr staff 32 Oct 8 22:44 dog

I've used ls -l dog to show the file permissions of dog before and after the chmod +x dog3 command. We can see that there are some new x's in the first section. These are saying that the file is now executable by all users.

Now that we have made the file executable we can run this just like any other program - as long as we tell the shell to look for programs in the current directory:

$ PATH="." dog
🐢 woof 🐢

By the way - don't do this! Adding the special . directory to the path is generally not a safe or sensible thing to do, this is just a demonstration of how it works. More common would be to run the program by specifying the path to the file, like so:

$ ./dog
🐢 woof 🐢

Another option would just be to move it to a standard location that the shell already checks for programs:

$ mv dog /usr/local/bin
$ dog
🐢 woof 🐢

Executables don't have to be compiled program code, they can be scripts. If a file starts with #! (the 'shebang'), then the system will try to run the contents of the file with the program specified in the shebang.

We will look at shebangs in greater detail in a later chapter. But the key takeaway here is that we can also have executable scripts as commands.


OK, so we've seen executables. What about a command like this?

local V="hello" echo $V

You will not find the local executable anywhere on your system. It is a builtin - a special command built directly into the shell program.

Builtins are often highly specific to your shell. They might be used for programming (local for example is used to declare a locally scoped variable), or they might be for very shell-specific features.

This is where we need to take note. As soon as you are running a builtin, you are potentially using a feature that is specific to your shell, rather than a program that is shared across the system and can be run by any shell.

Trying to programmatically execute local as a process will fail - there is no executable with that name; it is purely a shell construct.

So how do we know if a command is a builtin? The preferred method is to use the type command:

$ type local
local is a shell builtin

The type command (which is itself a builtin!) can tell you the exact type of shell command.

Interestingly, you might be using more builtins than you think. echo is a program, but most of the time you are not executing it when you are in a shell:

$ type -a echo
echo is a shell builtin
echo is /bin/echo

By using the -a flag on type to show all commands that match the name, we see that echo is actually both a builtin and a program.

Many simple programs have builtin versions. The shell can execute them much faster.

Some commands are a builtin so that they can function in a sensible manner. For example, cd command changes the current directory - if we executed it as a process, it would change only the directory for the cd process itself, not the shell, making it much less useful.

Echo is builtin because the shell can run much more quickly by not actually running a program if it has its own built in implementation.

Builtins will vary from shell to shell, but many shells are 'Bash-like' - meaning they will have a set very similar to the Bash builtins, which you can see here:

As should be familiar from Chapter 5 - Getting Help, you can get help for builtins:

$ man source     # source is a builtin
BUILTIN(1) BSD General Commands Manual BUILTIN(1)

builtin, !, %, # ...snip...

builtin [-options] [args ...]

However, the manual will not show information on specific builtins, which is a pain. Your shell might have an option to show more details - for example, in Bash you can use help:

$ help source
source: source filename [arguments]
Read and execute commands from FILENAME and return. The pathnames
in $PATH are used to find the directory containing FILENAME. If any
ARGUMENTS are supplied, they become the positional parameters when
FILENAME is executed.

But remember: help is a builtin; you might not find it in all shells (you won't find it in zsh, for example). This highlights again the challenges of builtins.


You can define your own shell functions. We will see a lot more of this later, but let's show a quick example for now:

$ restart-shell () { exec -l $SHELL }

This snippet creates a function that restarts the shell (quite useful if you are messing with shell configuration files or think you might have irreversibly goofed up your current session).

We can execute this function just like any command:

$ restart-shell

And running type will show us that this is a function:

$ type restart-shell
restart-shell is a function
restart-shell ()
exec -l $SHELL

Functions are one of the most powerful shell constructs we will see; they are extremely useful for building sophisticated logic. We're going to see them in a lot more detail later, but for now it is enough to know that they exist, and can run logic, and are run as commands.


An alias is just a shortcut. Type in a certain set of characters, and the shell will replace them with the value defined in the alias.

Some common commands are actually already aliases - for example, in my zsh shell, the ls command is an alias:

% type -a ls
ls is an alias for ls -G
ls is /bin/ls

I make sure that when I use the ls command, the shell always expands it to ls -G, which colours the output.

We can quickly define aliases to save on keystrokes. For example:

$ alias k='kubectl'

From this point on, I can use the k alias as shorthand for the kubectl command.

Aliases are far less sophisticated than functions. Think of them as keystroke savers and nothing more, and you won't go far wrong.

The Key Takeaways​

So we now hopefully have a greater understanding of the variety of shell commands. Not all commands are executables, not all of the commands we think are executables necessarily are, and some commands might be more sophisticated.

As a shell user, the key things to remember are:

  1. Executables are programs your system can use; your shell just calls out to them.
  2. Builtins are very shell-specific and usually control the shell itself
  3. Functions are powerful ways to write logic but will normally be shell-specific.
  4. Aliases are conveniences for human operators, but only in the context of an interactive shell.

To find out how a command is implemented, just use the type -a command:

$ type -a cat
cat is /bin/cat

More than You Need to Know​

OK, for the masochistic few, you might be wondering about all of the other commands and utilities you may have seen that can tell you about programs and commands:

  • what
  • whatis
  • which
  • whence
  • where
  • whereis
  • command
  • type

A lot of these are legacy and should be avoided, but for completeness sake, we'll go through them.


what reads out special metadata embedded in a program, generally used to identify the version of source code it was built from:

$ what /bin/ls
Copyright (c) 1989, 1993, 1994
PROGRAM:ls PROJECT:file_cmds-272.220.1

There should be almost no circumstance in which you need to use it in your day-to-day work, but you might come across it if you meant to type whatis.


whatis searches a local help database for text. This can be useful in tracking down manual pages:

$ whatis bash
bash(1) - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bashbug(1) - report a bug in bash

But I can't imagine it will be a regularly used tool by most users.


which will search your $PATH to see whether an executable can be found. With the -a flag, it will show all results.

$ which -a vi

which originated in csh. It remains on many systems for compatibility but in general should be avoided due to potentially odd behaviour4.


whence was added to the Korn shell. You are unlikely to use it unless you are on systems using ksh. zsh also has this command, but it should be avoided and considered non-standard.

% whence brew


This is a shell builtin that can provide information on commands, similar to type:

% where ls
ls: aliased to ls -G

However, type should be preferred, as it is more standard.


whereis is available on some systems and generally operates the same as which, searching paths for an executable:

% whereis ls

Again, type should be preferred for compatibility.


command is defined in the POSIX standard, so should be expected to be present on most modern systems. Without arguments, it simply executes a command. With the -v argument, you get a fairly machine-readable or processable response; with the -V argument, you get a more human readable response:

% command -v ls
alias ls='ls -G'
% command -V ls
ls is an alias for ls -G

command can be useful in scripts, as we will see in later chapters.


type is part of the Unix standard and will be present in most modern systems. As we've already seen, it will identify the type of command as well as the location for an executable:

% type -a ls
ls is an alias for ls -G
ls is /bin/ls

This command can also be used to only search for paths:

% type -p ls
ls is /bin/ls


In summary, avoid anything that starts with 'w'! These are legacy commands, generally needed only when working on older Unix machines. type or command should be used instead.

  1. We will cover permissions and modes in later chapters.↩
  2. Why these names and locations? It's a long story. The best place to start if you are interested is the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.↩
  3. chmod changes the mode of a file; +x means 'add the executable bit'. This tells the operating system the file can be executed.↩
  4. Stack Exchange: Why not use β€œwhich”? What to use then?↩